Package Summary

Tags No category tags.
Version 0.1.0
License BSD Clause 3
Build type AMENT_CMAKE
Use RECOMMENDED

Repository Summary

Checkout URI https://github.com/Ekumen-OS/andino.git
VCS Type git
VCS Version humble
Last Updated 2024-05-28
Dev Status DEVELOPED
CI status No Continuous Integration
Released RELEASED
Tags No category tags.
Contributing Help Wanted (0)
Good First Issues (0)
Pull Requests to Review (0)

Package Description

The andino_hardware package

Additional Links

No additional links.

Maintainers

  • Franco Cipollone
  • Javier Balloffet

Authors

No additional authors.

andino_hardware

This package aims to provide the necessary information to the correct assembly of the robot.

Bill of Materials

Number Module Part Links Comments
1 SBC Raspberry Pi 4 B (4 Gb) PiShop, TiendaTec If you want better performance you could buy the 8GB model
2 Chassis 2 x Print 3d Chassis + Rubber Tyre Wheels Chassis, Wheels Sparkfun -
3 Motors 2 x Motor with Encoder Sparkfun -
4 Microcontroller Arduino Nano Amazon You can also use an Arduino Uno, but mind size. It should include a microUSB - USB cable. If not, you will need to purchase it.
5 Motor Driver L298N Dual H Bridge Amazon -
6 Laser Scanner RPLidar A1M8 RobotShop, Amazon -
7 Camera Raspi Camera Module V2, 8 MP Robotshop, Amazon -
8 Electrical Power Supply Powerbank 5V Amazon Any powerbank is suitable: Mind size / weight / output current(>=2A)
9 (Optional) Power Step up DC - DC boost converter Amazon America, Amazon Europe If motors support higher voltage than 5V a step-up(e.g: to 9V) can be added between powerbank(5V) and motor driver
10 Fixing & Mount M3 bolts/fasteners - M3 Spacers - M2.5/2.0 bolts/fasteners for SBC Mercado Libre, Amazon You would also need a set of screwdrivers if you don't have one
11 Other 3D printed parts Camera Mount 3D models These parts are for fixing the Raspi Cam at the front of the robot

Connection Diagram

Motor-Arduino

Some frequent errors: - If one of the motors rotates in the opposite direction (think about the orientation of the motors in the chassis) probably the output(+ and -) of the L298N's output should be toggled. - When moving forward the encoder values should increase while moving backwards they should decrease. If it is happening the other way around probably the A and B encoder signals should be toggled.

Raspberry-Power

*NOTE: depending on the power bank maximum output current, the motors may need to be powered with a voltage value lower than 9V. While a higher voltage value (up to 9V) leads to smoother operation (better motor speed control), it also increases their open-loop speed, which is noticeable particularly during motion start and varies according to the power bank quality (output current capabilities). Therefore, adjusting the output voltage to lower values (around 7V) may be required so as to make the motors work as expected.

**NOTE: Ensure the ribbon cable is properly connected with the blue or silver side facing the USB ports.

Microcontroller Configuration

For uploading the microcontroller firmware please refer to andino_firmware package.

Single Board Computer (SBC)

The SBC used in this project is a Raspberry Pi 4b so the guidelines here will refer particularly to this family of on-board computers, however extending its use to other families is possible as well.

Operative System

Ubuntu Mate 22.04 ARM64 is the recommended operative system for this project. This OS provides good capabilities for a educational platform as well as good performance.

For installing this OS in the Raspberry: 1. Download the image from here: ubuntu mate downloadhttps://ubuntu-mate.org/download/arm64/

  1. Install OS to a microSD card using Raspberry Pi Imager.

    • No extra configuration should be necessary.
  2. Boot your raspberry using the microSD and a HDMI connection. Some initial configuration is necessary. Follow the wizard for a proper set up. It is recommended to use simple User and Password combinations for the user. For example:

    • user: pi
    • password: admin
  3. Once is done, run sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade in a terminal for updating the system. Then reboot.

Installing dependencies

Some packages are necessary to be installed towards a correct set up of the robot's on-board computer.

ssh-server

In general, you will want to access to the Raspberry remotely via ssh connection while being connected in the same network. So we need to install ssh-server;

sudo apt-get install openssh-server

Enable it if it is not enabled yet:

sudo systemctl enable ssh --now

After this you will be able to access this device from a remote computer by doing:

ssh <user>@<ip>

For example if the user is pi and the ip is 192.168.0.102

ssh pi@192.168.0.102

Common utilities

Install some common utilities that will be required later on.

sudo apt update

sudo apt install git net-tools software-properties-common build-essential -y

sudo apt install python3-rosdep2 python3-catkin-pkg python3-catkin-pkg-modules python3-rospkg-modules python3-rospkg  -y

Install ROS

Follow suit the instructions for installing next dependencies from binaries: - ROS 2 Humble - Colcon

To automatically source ROS installation, it is recommended to add source /opt/ros/humble/setup.bash line to the ~/.bashrc file.

Arduino

Arduino drivers are necessary for the SBC (Raspberry) <--> Microcontroller(Arduino) serial communication.

sudo apt install arduino

Configure it properly: 1. Add user to dialout and plugdev groups:

   sudo usermod -a -G dialout $USER

   sudo usermod -a -G plugdev $USER

Note you will need a reboot after this to be effective. 2. Remove brltty from the system

   sudo apt remove brltty

In Ubuntu 22.04 seems to be an issue with some chip drivers and the brltty daemon. To avoid this conflict we remove brltty as suggested. See this stackoverflow post for further information.

Raspberry Camera Module V2

After connecting the camera module to the Raspberry's camera port.

sudo apt install libraspberrypi-bin v4l-utils

sudo usermod -aG video $USER

Check camera status:

vcgencmd get_camera

RPLidar installation

The installation of the A1M8 RPLidar sensor is quite straight forward and a ros integration package will be installed later on via rosdep.

For now, after connecting it to the usb port: 1. Verify USB connection: Green light in the usb conversor(A1M8 side board) should be turned on. 2. Check the authority of RPLidar's serial-port: - ls -l /dev |grep ttyUSB - Add extra bits by doing sudo chmod 666 /dev/ttyUSB<number_of_device>

USB Port name configuration

Fixed USB port names

As having multiple USB devices connected to the USB ports of the Raspberry Pi, the automatically assigned USB port numbers could unexpectedly change after a reboot. To avoid assigning your device to a tty_USBX number that isn't the correct onew we should assign fixed USB port name for each connected device.

The idea is to be able to generate a link between the real ttyUSBX port and an invented one. For this we will need to create rules, that every time the Raspberry Pi boots are executed, and therefore we always point to the correct port name.

In order to create fixed names for the USB devices follow the instructions:

  1. Check the devices you have connected:
    sudo dmesg | grep ttyUSB

    [  10.016170] usb 1-1.2: ch341-uart converter now attached to ttyUSB0
    [ 309.186487] usb 1-1.1: cp210x converter now attached to ttyUSB1

In the setup where this was tested we have:
  -> Arduino Microcontroller -> _usb 1-1.2: ch341-uart converter now attached to ttyUSB0_
  -> A1M8 Lidar Scanner -> _usb 1-1.1: cp210x converter now attached to ttyUSB1_

_Note: If you don't know how to identify each one you can simply connect them one by one and check this output._
  1. Look for attributes for each device that we will use to anchor a particular device with a name. We will use the idProduct and idVendor of each device.
    • Arduino Microcontroller:
      udevadm info --name=/dev/ttyUSB0 --attribute-walk

  You should look for the `idProduct` and `idVendor` under the category that matches the usb number(1-1.X):
  In this case the `ttyUSB0` was referenced to the `usb 1-1.2`, so go to that section and find the ids:
        ATTRS{idProduct}=="7523"
        ATTRS{idVendor}=="1a86"

  • Lidar Scanner
      udevadm info --name=/dev/ttyUSB1 --attribute-walk

  In this case the `ttyUSB0` was referenced to the `usb 1-1.1`, so go to that section and find the ids:
        ATTRS{idProduct}=="ea60"
        ATTRS{idVendor}=="10c4"

  1. Create the rules:

    Open the file:

    sudo nano /etc/udev/rules.d/10-usb-serial.rules

Add the following:
    SUBSYSTEM=="tty", ATTRS{idProduct}=="7523", ATTRS{idVendor}=="1a86", SYMLINK+="ttyUSB_ARDUINO"
    SUBSYSTEM=="tty", ATTRS{idProduct}=="ea60", ATTRS{idVendor}=="10c4", SYMLINK+="ttyUSB_LIDAR"

Note that in the `symlink` field a fixed name is indicated.
  1. Re-trigger the device manager:
    sudo udevadm trigger

  1. Verify
    ls -l /dev/ttyUSB*

    crw-rw---- 1 root dialout 188, 0 Sep  2 15:09 /dev/ttyUSB0
    crw-rw---- 1 root dialout 188, 1 Sep  2 15:09 /dev/ttyUSB1
    lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root         7 Sep  2 15:09 /dev/ttyUSB_ARDUINO -> ttyUSB0
    lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root         7 Sep  2 15:09 /dev/ttyUSB_LIDAR -> ttyUSB1

Done! You can always use your devices by the fixed names without using the port number. Here, ttyUSB_ARDUINO and ttyUSB_LIDAR are fixed names for the Arduino Microcontroller and the Lidar Scanner respectively.

For more information you can take a look at this external tutorial: Here

Create robot workspace

Let's create our workspace and build from source this repository.

cd ~

mkdir robot_ws/src -p

Clone this repository in the src folder

cd robot_ws/src

git clone <repository_address>

Install dependencies via rosdep:

cd ~/robot_ws

When it is the first time you run rosdep:

rosdep update

Make sure to export the ROS_DISTRO environment variable:

export ROS_DISTRO=humble

And then proceed to install the workspace dependencies:

rosdep install --from-paths src -i -y -r

Note that option -r has been added. For ARM based processors, there are missing packages, e.g. those related to simulation. We would not try to run the simulation in the compute platform of andino, however for convenience it is added here.

Let' source the ROS Humble installation:

source /opt/ros/humble/setup.bash

Let's build the packages (andino_gz_classic and andino_navigation work only in simulation):

colcon build --packages-skip andino_gz_classic andino_navigation

After building is completed:

source install/setup.bash

After this, you are good to go and use the robot! Refer to usage section.

Extra Recommendations & Tools

Network

Via terminal the wifi connection can be switched by doing:

List available wifi networks:

sudo nmcli dev wifi list

Connect to the desired one:

sudo nmcli --ask dev wifi connect <SSID>

Copy files remotely

Using scp is a useful tool when copying files remotely over ssh.

For copying a folder from host to remote unit:

scp -r <path/to/folder> <remote_user>@<remote_ip>:<remote_path_to_folder>

ROS Domain ID

The domain ID is used by DDS to compute the UDP ports that will be used for discovery and communication.

When using a "public" network using the domain id is a good technique to avoid extra noise with other ROS 2 system in the same network.

See ROS_DOMAIN_ID

TLDR? Export an environment variable with the same ID in all ROS 2 clients in the network for a correct discovery.

export ROS_DOMAIN_ID=<a_number_between_0_and_101>

Using joystick for teleoperation

andino_bringup package provides a launch file for launching the corresponding ROS 2 nodes for teleoperating the robot using a joystick.

It is worth mentioning that a set up might be needed depending on the gamepad you are using. Here some general guidelines: - In case you are using a Xbox One Controller and you want use it wireless (via USB Wirless Dongle) installing Xone is recommended. - Verify that your joystick is actually working on Ubuntu: - Some tools that might be useful: - sudo apt install joystick jstest-gtk evtest - Run evtest to check if your pad is connected:

      $ evtest
        No device specified, trying to scan all of /dev/input/event*
        Not running as root, no devices may be available.
        Available devices:
          /dev/input/event22:   Microsoft X-Box One pad


- Alternatively, you can use `jstest-gtk` to check the controller, you will find a pretty GUI to play with.
CHANGELOG

Changelog for package andino_hardware

0.1.0 (2023-10-09)

  • Fixes USB port names (#143)
  • Provides info about joy teleoperation. (#142)
  • Adds package structures to firmware and hardware. (#133)
  • Add STL models for the raspi camera mount (#75)
  • Contributors: Franco Cipollone, Leo Neumarkt

Wiki Tutorials

See ROS Wiki Tutorials for more details.

Source Tutorials

Not currently indexed.

Package Dependencies

Deps Name
1 ament_cmake

System Dependencies

No direct system dependencies.

Dependant Packages

No known dependants.

Launch files

No launch files found

Messages

No message files found.

Services

No service files found

Plugins

No plugins found.

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