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Building ROS 2 on Linux

System Requirements

Target platforms for Bouncy Bolson (see [REP](http://www.ros.org/reps/rep-2000.html)). - Ubuntu Linux Xenial Xerus 16.04 64-bit - Ubuntu Linux Bionic Beaver 18.04 64-bit

Recommended Support (not actively tested or supported) - Debian Stretch - Fedora 26, see alternate instructions - Arch Linux, see alternate instructions.

Make sure that you have a locale set which supports UTF-8 We test with the following settings. If you are in a minimal environment such as a docker containers the locale may be set to something minimal like POSIX. To set the locale an example is below. It should be fine if you’re using a different UTF-8 supported locale.

sudo locale-gen en_US en_US.UTF-8
sudo update-locale LC_ALL=en_US.UTF-8 LANG=en_US.UTF-8
export LANG=en_US.UTF-8

System setup

Add the ROS 2 apt repository

First make sure you have the ROS 2 apt repositories added to your system, if not refer to the Setup Sources section of this guide

Install development tools and ROS tools

sudo apt update && sudo apt install -y \
  build-essential \
  cmake \
  git \
  python3-colcon-common-extensions \
  python3-pip \
  python-rosdep \
  python3-vcstool \
  wget
# install some pip packages needed for testing
sudo -H python3 -m pip install -U \
  argcomplete \
  flake8 \
  flake8-blind-except \
  flake8-builtins \
  flake8-class-newline \
  flake8-comprehensions \
  flake8-deprecated \
  flake8-docstrings \
  flake8-import-order \
  flake8-quotes \
  git+https://github.com/lark-parser/lark.git@0.7b \
  pytest-repeat \
  pytest-rerunfailures \
  pytest \
  pytest-cov \
  pytest-runner \
  setuptools
# install Fast-RTPS dependencies
sudo apt install --no-install-recommends -y \
  libasio-dev \
  libtinyxml2-dev

Get ROS 2.0 code

Create a workspace and clone all repos:

mkdir -p ~/ros2_ws/src
cd ~/ros2_ws
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/ros2/ros2/release-latest/ros2.repos
vcs import src < ros2.repos
Note: if you want to get all of the latest bug fixes then you can try the “tip” of development by replacing release-latest in the URL above with master. The release-latest is preferred by default because it goes through more rigorous testing on release than changes to master do. See also Maintaining a Source Checkout.

Install dependencies using rosdep

sudo rosdep init
rosdep update
# [Ubuntu 18.04]
rosdep install --from-paths src --ignore-src --rosdistro crystal -y --skip-keys "console_bridge fastcdr fastrtps libopensplice67 libopensplice69 rti-connext-dds-5.3.1 urdfdom_headers"
# [Ubuntu 16.04]
rosdep install --from-paths src --ignore-src --rosdistro crystal -y --skip-keys "console_bridge fastcdr fastrtps libopensplice67 libopensplice69 python3-lark-parser rti-connext-dds-5.3.1 urdfdom_headers"

Install more DDS implementations (Optional)

ROS 2.0 builds on top of DDS. It is compatible with multiple DDS or RTPS (the DDS wire protocol) vendors. The repositories you downloaded for ROS 2.0 includes eProsima’s Fast RTPS, which is the only bundled vendor. If you would like to use one of the other vendors you will need to install their software separately before building. The ROS 2.0 build will automatically build support for vendors that have been installed and sourced correctly.

By default we include eProsima’s FastRTPS in the workspace and it is the default middleware. Detailed instructions for installing other DDS vendors are provided below.

PrismTech OpenSplice Debian Packages built by OSRF

# For Crystal Clemmys
sudo apt install libopensplice69  # from packages.ros.org/ros2/ubuntu

# For Bouncy Bolson
sudo apt install libopensplice67  # from packages.ros.org/ros2/ubuntu

Add this to your ~/.bashrc

export OSPL_URI=file:///usr/etc/opensplice/config/ospl.xml

RTI Connext (version 5.3.1)

Debian packages provided in the ROS 2 apt repositories

You can install a Debian package of RTI Connext available on the ROS 2 apt repositories. You will need to accept a license from RTI.

sudo apt install -q -y \
    rti-connext-dds-5.3.1  # from packages.ros.org/ros2/ubuntu

Source the setup file to set the NDDSHOME environment variable.

cd /opt/rti.com/rti_connext_dds-5.3.1/resource/scripts && source ./rtisetenv_x64Linux3gcc5.4.0.bash; cd -

Note: when using zsh you need to be in the directory of the script when sourcing it to have it work properly

Now you can build as normal and support for RTI will be built as well.

If you want to install the Connext DDS-Security plugins please refer to this page

Official binary packages from RTI

You can install the Connext 5.3.1 package for Linux provided by RTI from their downloads page.

To use RTI Connext you will need to have obtained a license from RTI. Add the following line to your .bashrc file pointing to your copy of the license.

export RTI_LICENSE_FILE=path/to/rti_license.dat

After downloading, use chmod +x on the .run executable and then execute it. Note that if you’re installing to a system directory use sudo as well.

The default location is ~/rti_connext_dds-5.3.1

Source the setup file to set the NDDSHOME environment variable.

source ~/rti_connext_dds-5.3.1/resource/scripts/rtisetenv_x64Linux3gcc5.4.0.bash

Now you can build as normal and support for RTI will be built as well.

Build the code in the workspace

Note: to build the ROS 1 bridge, read the ros1_bridge instructions.

More info on working with a ROS workspace can be found in this tutorial.

cd ~/ros2_ws/
# On Ubuntu Linux Bionic Beaver 18.04
colcon build --symlink-install
# On Ubuntu Linux Xenial Xerus 16.04
colcon build --symlink-install --packages-ignore qt_gui_cpp rqt_gui_cpp

Note: if you are having trouble compiling all examples and this is preventing you from completing a successful build, you can use AMENT_IGNORE in the same manner as CATKIN_IGNORE to ignore the subtree or remove the folder from the workspace. Take for instance: you would like to avoid installing the large OpenCV library. Well then simply $ touch AMENT_IGNORE in the cam2image demo directory to leave it out of the build process.

Optionally install all packages into a combined directory (rather than each package in a separate subdirectory). On Windows due to limitations of the length of environment variables you should use this option when building workspaces with many (~ >> 100 packages).

Also, if you have already installed ROS2 from Debian make sure that you run the build command in a fresh environment. You may want to make sure that you do not have source /opt/ros/${ROS_DISTRO}/setup.bash in your .bashrc.

colcon build --symlink-install --merge-install

Afterwards source the local_setup.* from the install folder.

Try some examples

In one terminal, source the setup file and then run a talker:

. ~/ros2_ws/install/local_setup.bash
ros2 run demo_nodes_cpp talker

In another terminal source the setup file and then run a listener:

. ~/ros2_ws/install/local_setup.bash
ros2 run demo_nodes_py listener

You should see the talker saying that it’s Publishing messages and the listener saying I heard those messages. Hooray!

See the demos for other things to try.

Alternate compilers

Using a different compiler besides gcc to compile ROS 2 is easy. If you set the environment variables CC and CXX to executables for a working C and C++ compiler, respectively, and retrigger CMake configuration (by using --force-cmake-config or by deleting the packages you want to be affected), CMake will reconfigure and use the different compiler.

Clang

To configure CMake to detect and use Clang:

sudo apt install clang
export CC=clang
export CXX=clang++
colcon build --cmake-force-configure

TODO: using ThreadSanitizer, MemorySanitizer

Troubleshooting

Internal compiler error

If you experience an ICE when trying to compile on a memory constrained platform like a Raspberry PI you might want to build single threaded (prefix the build invocation with MAKEFLAGS=-j1).

Out of memory

The ros1_bridge in its current form requires 4Gb of free RAM to compile. If you don’t have that amount of RAM available it’s suggested to use AMENT_IGNORE in that folder and skip its compilation.

Multiple Host Interference

If you’re running multiple instances on the same network you may get interference. To avoid this you can set the environment variable ROS_DOMAIN_ID to a different integer, the default is zero. This will define the DDS domain id for your system. Note that if you are using the OpenSplice DDS implementation you will also need to update the OpenSplice configuration file accordingly. The location of the configuration file is referenced in the OSPL_URI environment variable.